Showing posts from January, 2016

How to design LM324 Astable Multivibrator

This blog post is intended to describe how astable multivibrator works based on LM324 operational amplifier, RC timer and positive voltage divider circuits. This is one way to implement astable multivibrator since additional options are available like: specialized signal generators or 555 timer integrated circuit configured to work as an astable multivibrator . There are two states related to astable multivibrator based on RC timer or an analog timer (there is also a digital timer integrated into the microcontroller for example, but in general, digital timers are based on astable multivibrators implemented with quartz or resonator external oscillators, since digital timers count PWM /clock oscilations . Anyway, there are different types of astable multivibrators in order to provide clock cycles): charging and discharging. Charging   To describe charging state we will start from beginning with the completely discharged capacitor C (it has zero volts between p